Compelling firsthand accounts and primary source documents underpin the introduction to U.S. history in History Compass' popular Research American History series. The migration of over six million Southern blacks to the Northeast and Midwest had a tremendous impact on life in the U.S. Leaving natural disasters, sharecropping, Jim Crow laws, and racism, they were soon confronted by new problems and challenges in the North. At the same time, many African Americans came together in the arts, centered in Harlem, with a spirit of hope and pride. This volume presents the philosophies of Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. DuBois, and Marcus Garvey, along with excerpts from Zora Neale Hurston, Jessie Fauset, Langston Hughes, and more.